Renewing structures enabling exercise of citizen rights
In the European Union, in order to ensure that the existence of differing national judicial systems does not prevent citizens from exercising their rights, the EU planned to make it easier to obtain justice in another member state than one's own. In 1999, the EU Council of Ministers planned to set standards designed to simplify the settlement of cross-border disputes involving only modest sums of money; effective protection would also be given to victims of criminal acts in another EU country. There would be a public information system on national judicial systems, complete with practical handbooks. The 15 EU heads also agreed in principle to the mutual recognition of court decisions between EU countries. The EU would also facilitate cooperation between the judges and courts in the different member states. It will be possible, for example, to present the evidence gathered in one EU country to a court in another country, and for a judge from one country to seize goods or funds in another EU country.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.