Some industrial countries use the threat of protection as a lever to open other countries' markets.
At first glance this seems an almost benign strategy, opening markets to trade rather than closing markets by protection. However, it is really government management of trade. Each individual bilateral trade deal may seem insignificant, but it invites further political action of the same kind and undermines the system of rules governing trade in the GATT. Such arrangements may backfire, as happened with the USA-Japan accord on trade in semiconductors, when firms in the USA suffered rather than gained from the protection and the failures of the accord seemed to sow the seeds of further conflict.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.