Some industrial countries use the threat of protection as a lever to open other countries' markets.
At first glance this seems an almost benign strategy, opening markets to trade rather than closing markets by protection. However, it is really government management of trade. Each individual bilateral trade deal may seem insignificant, but it invites further political action of the same kind and undermines the system of rules governing trade in the GATT. Such arrangements may backfire, as happened with the USA-Japan accord on trade in semiconductors, when firms in the USA suffered rather than gained from the protection and the failures of the accord seemed to sow the seeds of further conflict.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. These connections are based on a range of relationships such as broader and narrower scope, aggravation, relatedness and more. By concentrating on these links and relationships, the Encyclopedia is uniquely positioned to bring focus to the complex and expansive sphere of global issues and their interconnected nature.
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