The pressure for pension fund reform has come from various areas. One has been the increasing gap between contributions and payments due to demographic reasons, the design and structure of the pension systems themselves, the effects of the recession on employment, fraud and the use of pension fund reserves to finance fiscal deficits. This has caused major problems in many countries. It has led some developing countries, such as Chile, to move from pay-as-you-go schemes (PAYG) to privately managed individual capitalization schemes. On the other hand, there has been the concern among some governments to extend social insurance in terms of increasing the population and contingency coverage of pension or social security benefits. And this has led some other developing countries, such as Ghana to move in the opposite direction, from a state administered individual capitalization scheme to PAYG-based social insurance. In between these two types of reforms, one in the direction of a privatized fully-funded defined-contributions pension system, as in Chile, and the other in the direction of a state-run partially funded defined-benefits pension system, as in Ghana, other types of reforms are possible, for example one combining state-run partially-funded defined-benefits pensions with privately-managed fully-funded defined-contributions pensions, either on a voluntary or mandatory basis.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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