By making use of part-time work the employer can cushion peaks in demand, extend the working time and raise productivity, and shorten the working time for some specific jobs.
Some variations on part-time work are so unfavourable to the workers that trade unions have combatted them strongly. This is the case for: 1. Contracts that provide only a minimum and a maximum working time; 2. Summons contracts that provide for a weekly working time between zero and forty hours; 3. Some other sophisticated forms of variable part-time regulations, such as contracts that guarantee a minimum annual employment or an average weekly working time, and which stipulate in addition that both the work timetable and the working time can vary (both daily and weekly) but that the monthly wages are fixed. Such contracts usually link maximum flexibility for employers with awful wage and working conditions.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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