Used by the League of Arab States against companies doing business with Israel. Used by the USA to penalize companies and countries that engage in business with Cuba, circumventing the economic sanctions imposed by the USA.
Economic sanctions can be a useful and legitimate way for a country to place pressure on other countries to modify policies that are considered offensive. Where such sanctions are not respected, it is legitimate for secondary sanctions to be imposed in order indirectly to punish those who practice such policies.
Secondary boycotts often offend the sovereignty of allies. They may invite retaliation and may violate international trading treaties.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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