The logic of trade liberalization is that tariffs should be as low as possible to avoid any element of discrimination. But where significant import protection aims, governments can consider offsetting the discrimination against exports with administrative measures to provide imported inputs at world prices or with subsidies. Directly promoting exports in this way may also help to form a constituency for continued protection.
Such measures may come to be seen as a long-term alternative to further import liberalization. It is a difficult alternative to cuts in import protection. It raises administrative problems and often requires significant budgetary resources. Like any other selective intervention, it will also encourage rent seeking. The risk of trade disputes and of countervailing duties in importing countries has made direct export promotion increasingly unattractive.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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