Exchanging human organs Procuring human parts for transplants Providing registry for donor organs
One of the major obstacles of organ transplantation is that the organ has to be transplanted within a few hours of being removed from the donor. Researchers in Canada reported in 2002 that they successfully transplanted rat ovaries that had been frozen in liquid nitrogen. Previous attempts at freezing organs have failed, mainly because chemicals used in the freezing process damaged delicate blood vessels. This problem seems to have been overcome by infusing the organs in a protective fluid, slowly cooling them and then storing them in liquid nitrogen. Although study results show that the technique is not perfect and needs refining, as just over 50% of the seven transplants carried out with frozen ovaries were successful, compared with 100% of those using "fresh" organs.
In 1998 the number of organ donors in the US increased significantly for the first time in years. As a result, approximately 600 more organ transplants were performed than in 1997, though demand for organs still drastically outweighs supply. The increase was fueled by a new rule under which hospitals must report all deaths to the organizations that approach families to enlist donors.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.