Using affirmative discrimination Promoting racial quotas Promoting gender quotas Taking affirmative action against discrimination Promoting affirmative action
Affirmative action, gives preference to discriminated groups in society as defined by race and gender, physical disability or any other category where those members are typically subjected to discrimination. Affirmative action includes setting racial or gender quotas in employment situations and educational admission procedures, to overcome past discrimination and prevent further discrimination against discriminated groups.
When a society continues to be discriminatory towards certain groups, whilst its law protects or adheres to the rights of all people, affirmative action will effective promote opportunity for discriminated groups in situations where otherwise they would be denied opportunity because of discrimination.
Affirmative action is meant to reduce discrimination by giving preference to discriminated groups over non-discriminated groups in employment and other opportunity situations. However, this can lead to reverse discrimination or the discrimination of non-discriminated groups. For instance, racial or gender quotas in employment are anti-merit when individuals from discriminated-groups are given the job in preference of "non-discriminated" people who have more merit for the job. Anti-merit discrimination is wrong. Affirmative action does not promote equal opportunity. It is a top-down social "band-aid" approach that in the long term does not serve society well. Affirmative action lessens individual responsibility, when it is individual responsibility that should be focused on in order to facilitate reducing discrimination and promoting equal opportunity.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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