Granting the release or milder sentences to criminals or political prisoners. Amnesty may also clear the police record of a person who has already served a term of punishment. A pardon might be granted to prisoners in general, to those who have committed certain types of crime or political acts or for specific groups of people. Often an amnesty is used to mark a particularly important historical event or celebration or to indicate the humanism and benevolence of political leaders. It can be a mechanism to re-establish the legitimacy of a group of people who have been denied political rights by an earlier government.
Amnesty may require public announcements of the event to be effective socially.
(a) Amnesty results in miscarriages of justice. (b) It is used as a public-image gesture for non-humanitarian reasons.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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