Substituting with plastic Employing plastic products
The most commonly used plastics are low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Production of these seven plastics by West European manufacturers in 1993 totalled 20.5 million tonnes.
In car design, plastics' flexibility allows for advanced shapes to be accomplished without compromise to 'crashworthiness'. A plastics bumper takes less than two minutes to injection mould and slots into place -- revolutionizing tradition production procedures. By volume, more plastics than steel are used in cars. However, plastics low volume means that they typically account for only 7 - 15% of an average car's weight.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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