Researching application of chemicals to control pests
Pest management is the domain of entomologists, ecologists, biologists, agriculturalists, toxologists and chemists. The subject is highly complex and a multidisciplinary approach seems necessary. Unfortunately, however, there has been a tendency for each specialist to only consider his/her own discipline, thereby ignoring the numerous interactions between the dynamics of pest populations, the environment, crops, etc. It is therefore important that agricultural pest management is always viewed in its ecological context and that the whole farming system is studied before it is manipulated with external pest control measures, particularly toxic chemicals. The usual approach to pest management is pest-oriented rather than crop-oriented. However, since crops are more important than pests, it is suggested that the subject should be approached through experimental variation of crop management rather than of pest control possibilities, and emphasis on data on cropping systems characteristics rather than on pest populations.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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