Inappropriate arguments

Visualization of narrower problems
Fallacious arguments
Spurious arguments
Cheap argument
Bad arguments
Improper forms of debate
Fatuous reasoning
Flaky arguments
Polarizing rhetoric
Obfuscatory arguments
Misuse of plausible arguments to conceal nefarious benefits

A well-defined group of fallacious arguments may be used to promote or oppose new projects. They may include: fallacies of logic or syntax; arguments from authority; posing of an incorrect question; suppression of relevant information; utilization of ambiguous terms; omission of a relevant concomitant variable; use of biased samples; use of samples which are statistically too small to give meaningful results; misleading use of graphs and pictures; and dependence on erroneous presentations of statistical data. Such methods of argument may over-simplify, over-complicate, ignore the opposing position, accept the authoritative position too readily, accept the position because it is detailed in print, place excessive reliance upon some formal system or formula or reject such a system too readily.


The assumption that truth depends on logical reasoning causes premature and unreasoned rejection of proposals whose justification has been presented in an illogical manner. Fallacy and falsity are two different things. Conclusions may state a truth despite faulty argumentation. For example: only fixed stars are stationary in space; the Sun is not a fixed star therefore it is moving. Likewise, approved, reasoned arguments have 'proven' that human travel through the air is impossible; that there are superior and inferior races; that God is Three Persons, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; and that there is no God the Mother.

(F) Fuzzy exceptional problems