Wilson–Mikity syndrome, a form of chronic lung disease (CLD) that exists only in premature infants, leads to progressive or immediate development of respiratory distress. This rare condition affects low birth babies and is characterized by rapid development of lung emphysema after birth, requiring prolonged ventilation and oxygen supplementation. It is closely related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), differing mainly in the lack of prior ventilatory support. All the initial patients described with Wilson–Mikity syndrome were very low birth weight infants that had no history of mechanical ventilation, yet developed a syndrome that clinically resembled BPD. Upon the death of some of these infants, autopsies showed histologic changes similar to those seen in BPD.
It was characterized by Miriam G. Wilson and Victor G. Mikity in 1960.