Inclusion body myositis (IBM) () (sometimes called sporadic inclusion body myositis, sIBM) is the most common inflammatory muscle disease in older adults. The disease is characterized by slowly progressive weakness and wasting of both proximal muscles (closest to the body's midline) and distal muscles (the limbs), most apparent in the finger flexors and knee extensors. IBM is often confused with an entirely different class of diseases, called hereditary inclusion body myopathies (hIBM). The "M" in hIBM is an abbreviation for "myopathy" while the "M" in IBM is an abbreviation for "myositis". These diseases should not be confused with each other. In IBM, two processes appear to occur in the muscles in parallel, one autoimmune and the other degenerative. Inflammation is evident from the invasion of muscle fibers by immune cells. Degeneration is characterized by the appearance of holes, deposits of abnormal proteins, and filamentous inclusions in the muscle fibers. sIBM is a rare disease, with a prevalence ranging from 1 to 71 individuals per million.
Weakness comes on slowly (over months to years) in an asymmetric manner and progresses steadily, leading to severe weakness and wasting of arm and leg muscles. IBM is more common in men than women. Patients may become unable to perform activities of daily living and most require assistive devices within 5 to 10 years of symptom onset. sIBM is not considered a fatal disorder, but the risk of serious injury due to falls is increased. Death in IBM is sometimes related to malnutrition and respiratory failure. There is no effective treatment for the disease.