Traditionally under common law, corporations and associations could not be convicted for criminal offences, since not being persons, they could not personally participate in a trial or be imprisoned if convicted. Corporate liability for failure to perform duties owed to the general public and for actions of employees during the course of their duties is increasingly recognized.
Limited liability is a worldwide swindle. The only risk in running a limited company is that the public will understand the nature of the racket. Evasion of responsibility is the whole point of limited liability. Companies are now deliberately formed to take advantage of tax relief on bankruptcy. Senior managements have escaped censure, let alone criminal punishment, for disasters which have been attributed to breaches in health or safety requirements.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.