Before the advent of commercial pasteurization of milk and its transport under protected conditions to consuming centers, cows were kept inside the cities to provide this perishable commodity within a few hours of its production. In almost all developing countries, this pattern persists. Due to the high cost of land and services and to the lack of facilities, the city cattle are kept in congested and insanitary stables. They may be in badly ventilated underground basements of residences, into which sunlight never enters. In India alone it is probable that over 2 million cows and buffaloes are kept inside the cities and large towns, and the number is steadily increasing.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.