Before the advent of commercial pasteurization of milk and its transport under protected conditions to consuming centers, cows were kept inside the cities to provide this perishable commodity within a few hours of its production. In almost all developing countries, this pattern persists. Due to the high cost of land and services and to the lack of facilities, the city cattle are kept in congested and insanitary stables. They may be in badly ventilated underground basements of residences, into which sunlight never enters. In India alone it is probable that over 2 million cows and buffaloes are kept inside the cities and large towns, and the number is steadily increasing.