Currency overvaluations and undervaluations have appeared repeatedly under the postwar regimes of both fixed and flexible exchange rates; have tended to grow rather than diminish; and may well reappear periodically even if the current regime is substantially reformed. Floating exchange rates tend to be accompanied by massive capital flows, resulting in large currency misalignments. These produce new protectionist measures in countries with overvalued currencies. In contrast to the initial assumptions of the Bretton Woods system, monetary flows have now come to determine trade flows rather than vice versa, and thus a country can find itself with a currency whose value in no way reflects its ability to compete in international trade, thus further exacerbating the uncertainty in the trading system and adding to the pressures for further protection.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. These connections are based on a range of relationships such as broader and narrower scope, aggravation, relatedness and more. By concentrating on these links and relationships, the Encyclopedia is uniquely positioned to bring focus to the complex and expansive sphere of global issues and their interconnected nature.
The initial content for the Encyclopedia was seeded from UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations. UIA’s decades of collected data on the enormous variety of association life provided a broad initial perspective on the myriad problems of humanity. Recognizing that international associations are generally confronting world problems and developing action strategies based on particular values, the initial content was based on the descriptions, aims, titles and profiles of international associations.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.