Innovation in regulatory and other dimensions of banking policy in most developing countries - and for that matter, in many developed nations - has failed to keep abreast of the innovations in financial services provided by transnational banks. Generally, developing countries regulate on the basis of institutional form, with the emphasis on branch banking, rather than on the basis of the type or function of a financial service. They do not devote nearly the same regulatory attention to finance subsidiaries of transnational banks as to branch offices. In many cases, the outcome is that regulatory control over branches is legally circumvented by the use of these subsidiaries. Thus, pursuing the traditional central bank means of controlling credit creation through control over branch bank deposits alone produces a "blind spot" - in many developed as well as developing nations - that modern transnational banking structures can work around.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.