Hyenas are threatened, due to persecution from farmers who want to protect their livestock. Habitat degradation and fragmentation is a serious concern for all species of Hyaena. Hyaenas are also persecuted as a consequence of the image that humans have of them as scavengers and manifestations of evil.
The striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena) is found in northern Africa, the Middle East, India, and Asia extending north to the Caucasus and southern Siberia.
Brown hyaenas live in arid places, such as the Kalahari desert. Their range is limited to the southern part of Africa, although fossils show they once had a wider range.
Hyaena hyaena is listed by CITES as "Appendix 3".