Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma in which cancer originates from a specific type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. Symptoms may include fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Often there will be non-painful enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, under the arm, or in the groin. Those affected may feel tired or be itchy.
There are two major types of Hodgkin lymphoma: classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. About half of cases of Hodgkin lymphoma are due to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and these are generally the classic form. Other risk factors include a family history of the condition and having HIV/AIDS. Diagnosis is by finding Hodgkin cells such as multinucleated Reed–Sternberg cells (RS cells) in lymph nodes. The virus-positive cases are classified as a form of the Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases.
Hodgkin lymphoma may be treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplant. The choice of treatment often depends on how advanced the cancer has become and whether or not it has favorable features. In early disease, a cure is often possible. The percentage of people who survive five years in the United States is 86%. For those under the age of 20, rates of survival are 97%. Radiation and some chemotherapy drugs, however, increase the risk of other cancers, heart disease, or lung disease over the subsequent decades.
In 2015, about 574,000 people globally had Hodgkin lymphoma, and 23,900 (4.2%) died. In the United States, 0.2% of people are affected at some point in their life. The most common age of diagnosis is between 20 and 40 years old. It was named after the English physician Thomas Hodgkin, who first described the condition in 1832.