Salmonella gallinarum infection primarily causes disease in chickens and turkeys, but ducks, pheasants, guinea-fowl, peafowl, grouse, and quail can also be affected. This bacterium limits itself to avian species and is not known to cause disease in humans.
Due to extensive testing and control by the poultry producers, fowl typhoid is rare in countries with a modern poultry industry. The disease has gained incidence in South America and other countries throughout Africa and Asia in recent year. Canada and the United States are presently free of the disease.