Blood in urine

Other Names:
Bloody urine

Hematuria or haematuria is defined as the presence of blood or red blood cells in the urine. It can be classified according to the quantity, the anatomical origin of bleeding and the occurrence during bleeding.

As per the quantity, hematuria can be detected by the naked eye (gross hematuria), or can only be detected under microscopy (microscopic hematuria) As per the anatomical origin, blood or red blood cells can enter and mix with urine at multiple anatomical sites, these include the urinary system, female reproductive system, and integumentary system. Urinary causes occur anywhere between the kidney glomerulus and the urethral meatus. These can be divided into glomerular and non-glomerular causes. Non-glomerular causes can be further subdivided into upper urinary tract and lower urinary tract causes. As per the occurrence during bleeding, hematuria can be initial, terminal or total.

When hematuria is detected, conducting a thorough history, physical examination and further evaluation (e.g; imagining, cystoscopy) of the urinary tract helps determining the underlying cause and stratifying patients into high and low risk. High-risk patients include those with visible hematuria or those with non-visible hematuria and risk factors.

Related Problems:
Dark urine
Related UN Sustainable Development Goals:
GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
Problem Type:
G: Very specific problems
Date of last update
18.03.2020 – 20:08 CET