Decline in public spending in the social sector Decline in public expenditure on human development Retreat of social security systems
Between 1983 and 1986 developing countries cut spending on health by 13.3% and on education by 10.5% according to the World Bank's "World Development Report 1988". By 1992, almost all European countries had imposed some manner of cuts on social security benefits, from Germany's benefits freeze, to more subtle restrictions, such as tighter eligibility rules and reduced payment periods. The Netherlands had restricted housing benefits, Denmark proposed cuts in unemployment pay, and Sweden a package which reduced pensions, sick pay and housing subsidies.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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