Refusal of rulers to leave office Entrenched public figures
Strong and dynamic leaders are essential to move an organization forward. Indeed, without their direction, energy and commitment, an organization might never get off the ground. The risk is that dependency can develop upon one or a few people which blocks further development. A cult of personality can develop around those who always speak for the group, paving the way for an imbalance of power.
The death in 1993 of President Felix Houphouet-Boigny of the Ivory Coast brought to an end 33 years of continuous rule. Excluding monarchs, Cuba's Fidel Castro, who came into power in 1959, and North Korea's Kim Il-sung, who has been president since 1948 (died in 1994), are the only world's leaders to have been in power longer. Others rulers with lengthy terms are King Hussein of Jordan (since 1952), Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire (since 1965), Dr Hastings Banda of Malawi (since 1966), General Suharto of Indonesia (since 1968) and Colonel Muammar Gadafy of Libya (since 1969).
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. These connections are based on a range of relationships such as broader and narrower scope, aggravation, relatedness and more. By concentrating on these links and relationships, the Encyclopedia is uniquely positioned to bring focus to the complex and expansive sphere of global issues and their interconnected nature.
The initial content for the Encyclopedia was seeded from UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations. UIA’s decades of collected data on the enormous variety of association life provided a broad initial perspective on the myriad problems of humanity. Recognizing that international associations are generally confronting world problems and developing action strategies based on particular values, the initial content was based on the descriptions, aims, titles and profiles of international associations.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.