Subregional and regional integration offers a multisectoral framework of cooperation which combines the tools of trade expansion with cooperation in respect of investment, services, transport, customs facilitation and other areas which mutually enhance each other's effectiveness. Producers can benefit from economies of scale. Subregional integration is a means to diversify into new export products, to encourage many new firms to export for the first time, to gain experience on the regional market, and to become competitive in certain branches where the regional market exceeds the threshold of cost effectiveness. Subregional integration can therefore constitute a major stage in the learning process for attaining international competitiveness and, in certain industries, a phase in the process leading towards later expansion towards world markets. It can also strengthen the position of members in trade negotiations.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.