Agenda 21 recommends identifying personnel development needs and developing additional training programmes at the national, regional and global levels, especially in developing countries. These should be supported by increased training at all levels, graduate, postgraduate and post-doctoral, as well as by the training of technicians and support staff, with particular reference to the generation of trained manpower in consultant services, design, engineering and marketing research. Training programmes for lecturers training scientists and technologists in advanced research institutions in different countries would also need to be developed, and systems giving appropriate rewards, incentives and recognition to scientists and technologists instituted. Conditions of service would need to be improved at the national level in developing countries to encourage and nurture trained manpower with a view to retaining that manpower locally. Society in general needs to be informed of the social and cultural impact of the development and application of biotechnology.