In 1994, the Amur Program of Socio-Ecological Union (SEU) in Russia took a 50-year land lease of 5,206.7 hectares of wetlands and arable lands and established the first privately operated nature reserve in Russia, the Muraviovka Park. The park is located in the heart of the "bread basket" of the Russian Far East and is one of the most important breeding areas and stopovers for rare species of cranes. The park now promotes environmental summer camps for students and teachers in the Amur, Khabarovski and Primorski regions; regular classes in schools around Muraviovka park; training for teachers and educators in the park; and provides facilities for travelling wildlife photographic and art exhibits. Since 1997 Muraviovka has developed a Demonstration Farm, the main efforts of which are land restoration and organic and low chemical use farming. Wildlife and wetlands management activities are also conducted in Muraviovka.
China's first nature reserve was established in 1956. By the end of 1991, a total of 708 nature reserves covering an area of 568,000 square kilometres (5.54% of China's land area) had been established in China. Seventy-seven of the reserves are National Reserves. Ten nature reserves, Mount Dinghu, Mount Changbai, Wolong, Mount Fanjing, Mount Wuyi, Xilin'guole, Peak Bogeda, Shennongjia, Yancheng and Xishuangbanna have been included by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in the International Network of Biosphere Reserves. Another 6 nature reserves, Zhalong, Xianghai, Bird Island, Poyang Lake, East Dongting Lake and Dongzhai Harbour have been listed in the List of International Important Wetlands.