The most influential NGOs, as well as national environmental agencies, have tended to promote nature reserve-type policies and prescriptions. These are important in their place. However, further approaches are required for farmland management at the landscape scale. Importantly, farmers often find these prescriptions illogical in the context of their own knowledge and understanding of their farming systems and enterprises. There is undoubtedly a need for more farmer involvement in the development of schemes. This is because a belief in the relevance of programmes will significantly improve take-up, and the practical knowledge of farmers could increase their success.