On 1 December 1999 the Association of Japanese Automobile Manufacturers (JAMA) and the Association of Korean Automobile Manufacturers (KAMA) committed themselves to achieve an average target of 140g CO2/km emission rate for their fleet of new passenger cars sold in the EU by the year 2009. The commitments correspond to those made in 1998 by the Association of European Automobile Manufacturers (ACEA). The commitments do not impose a target on the individual manufacturers, but only an average target for all JAMA and KAMA members. Individual JAMA and KAMA members are thus free to apply more stringent as well as less stringent levels of CO2 emissions provided the average target is met. The car manufacturers are free to develop and introduce new CO2-efficient technologies independently and in competition with each other.
In 1995, the Greek government banned all private cars from the most ancient part of Athens in daytime, except those belonging to the relatively few people who lived there. Deliveries were allowed only at night and first thing in the morning, and free minibuses were taking tourists and Athenians into the area of over a square mile, which included the ancient town of Plaka beneath the Acropolis and several - former - major traffic arteries. The scheme cut down some 70,000 car journeys a day and became unexpectedly popular as people walked the streets without fear of being mown down.