Landscape ecology is a branch of ecological activity concerned with the relationship between landscape-level features, patterns and processes and the conservation and maintenance of ecological processes and biodiversity with in entire ecosystems.
The Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy, approved in Sofia in October 1995 at the 3rd Ministerial Conference on Environment for Europe, seeks to integrate biological and landscape diversity considerations into the various sectoral policies likely to affect the environment.
The Benelux Agreement concerning Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection, 1982 aims to harmonize certain aspects of the conservation, management and restoration of the natural environment and the landscape. The three Benelux countries are obliged to: (1) harmonize relevant policies and instruments; (2) consult each other and exchange information where this is necessary in order to coordinate relevant policies; (3) organize coordinated information and education campaigns; (4) exchange scientific data and carry out cooperative research where appropriate; (5) coordinate implementing actions under other relevant international agreements.
With regard to the effective protection of transboundary nature reserves and valuable landscapes, the Parties are obliged to: develop a vision for protecting such areas, including areas that are important for migratory species; draw up a "protection statute" which can be granted to such areas under the auspices of the Agreement; draw up coordinated management programmes and consult periodically on their implementation consult each other on activities that might damage such areas.
Each Party is responsible for instituting the necessary measures to implement the Agreement and for monitoring and enforcing the provisions of the Agreement on its own territory.