The [Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora] (CITES) recognizes that peoples and States are and should be the best protectors of their own wild fauna and flora.
In Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area, established in 1986 as a multiple-use area rather than a national park, government collaboration with local community groups brought about the establishment and enforcement of a land-use system that increases the local benefits from tourism and provided local people with training in conservation and forest management. The project successfully included a sceptical local population to participate in the management of the area, and has resulted in reduced conflicts.
On their own lands, the culturally native populations of Latin America protect large areas in natural ecosystems and achieve a renewable resource of a living environment. This relation can be reinforced by each of the four management options for the formal designation and organization or protected areas which are outlined in this paper: native owned lands, where the protection of the area is by native peoples; reserves, where a protected natural area corresponds with the territory of a particular native population; buffer zones, where a protected area serves as a physical or ecological barrier between native lands and the lands of others; and research stations, where certain areas under native management are organized as agricultural or ecological research stations.
2. Protected areas should become commonly owned resources managed so that local people earn material benefits from the wildlife in their midst, by harvesting meat, ivory and other wild produce, and by claiming revenues from safari tourism and controlled trophy hunting.