Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is a voluntary, worldwide fellowship of people from all walks of life who meet together to attain and maintain sobriety. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. In 1990 there were over 96,000 AA groups registered in more than 130 countries and membership was estimated at over 2 million. There are no membership fees, and donations are not accepted from non-members. AA is a programme of total abstinence. Members simply stay away from one drink, one day at a time. Sobriety is maintained through sharing experience, strength and hope at group meetings and through the suggested Twelve Steps for recovery from Alcoholism. The AA approach views alcoholism as a disease, rather like an allergy, that can never be 'cured' but can be arrested. Anonymity is the spiritual foundation of AA. It disciplines the Fellowship to govern itself by principles rather than personalities.
1. Moderate alcohol consumption of 10 to 30 g/day in men (1 to 3 glasses of wine per day) may have a protective effect on the cardio-vascular system. This protective effect disappears in heavy drinkers or those who have episodic drunkenness. Nevertheless, moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased mortality from cerebral haemorrhage and hypertension.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.