This strategy features in the framework of Agenda 21 as formulated at UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), now coordinated by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development and implemented through national and local authorities.
Agenda 21 recommends establishing environmental health impact assessment procedures for the planning and development of new industries and energy facilities.
Many States have drawn up national environmental health action plans (NEHAPs) and are now preparing to implement them. The implementation of a NEHAP in the energy sector will be more successful if it is incorporated into the national energy policy. Having assessed the health effects of energy consumption, states should concentrate on integrating this information into economic mechanisms, through measures to internalize environmental health costs, and promote appropriate strategies for investment, development and demand management. On the whole, moderating energy consumption through demand management has a positive effect on environmental health. However, when aiming at specific health improvements, the trade-offs that occur when shifting from one source of energy to another should be borne in mind. Economic analysis allows the different options to be compared. The health implications of fuel poverty will be a paramount consideration in some countries.