In 1998 a packet of cigarettes in the UK cost Â£3.64 ($5.82), of which Â£2.88 went to the government in taxes. The same packet of cigarettes cost Â£1.49 less in France, Â£1.67 less in Germany and Â£2.11 less in Spain. On average, a British packet of cigarettes costs about Â£1.50 more than a packet in any other European country. The average packet in America cost about $2.05 of which 61 cents are taxes, not counting sales and municipal taxes.
Because smokers tend to die earlier than nonsmokers, the short-term costs of treating tobacco-related illness are balanced, and probably outweighed, by savings on social security, nursing home stays, and medical care in old age. Every analysis that takes such long-term savings into account, including reports from the US RAND Corporation, the Congressional Research Service, and Harvard economist W. Kip Viscusi, concludes that "social cost" cannot justify raising cigarette taxes.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. These connections are based on a range of relationships such as broader and narrower scope, aggravation, relatedness and more. By concentrating on these links and relationships, the Encyclopedia is uniquely positioned to bring focus to the complex and expansive sphere of global issues and their interconnected nature.
The initial content for the Encyclopedia was seeded from UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations. UIA’s decades of collected data on the enormous variety of association life provided a broad initial perspective on the myriad problems of humanity. Recognizing that international associations are generally confronting world problems and developing action strategies based on particular values, the initial content was based on the descriptions, aims, titles and profiles of international associations.
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