Simple cards to access health services, electronic payment, mobile internet, public transport, pay TV and many more applications. This is what smart cards can do. Affordably, securely, for every citizen, and working everywhere. These cards can be individual, multifunctional or embedded in different devices. The development of these technologies will open up new markets with new opportunities for consumers and business in the future.
A smart card is a credit-card sized plastic card embedded with an integrated circuit chip that makes it "smart". This marriage between a convenient plastic card and a microprocessor allows an immense amount of information to be stored, accessed and processed either online or offline. Smart cards can store several hundred times more data than a conventional card with a magnetic stripe. The information or application stored in the IC chip is transferred through an electronic module that interconnects with a terminal or a card reader. A contactless smart card has an antenna coil which communicates with a receiving antenna to transfer information. Depending on the type of the embedded chip, smart cards can be either memory cards or processor cards.
Literally, billions of smart cards are already in use. Worldwide smart card sales could reach 1.6 billion units in 1998, up 23% from 1.3 billion units in 1997. Western Europe accounts for about 70% of the current smart card uses, followed by South America and Asia with about 10% each, while North America languishes at less than 5%.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. These connections are based on a range of relationships such as broader and narrower scope, aggravation, relatedness and more. By concentrating on these links and relationships, the Encyclopedia is uniquely positioned to bring focus to the complex and expansive sphere of global issues and their interconnected nature.
The initial content for the Encyclopedia was seeded from UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations. UIA’s decades of collected data on the enormous variety of association life provided a broad initial perspective on the myriad problems of humanity. Recognizing that international associations are generally confronting world problems and developing action strategies based on particular values, the initial content was based on the descriptions, aims, titles and profiles of international associations.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.