Proposals for solving the debt crisis reflect a range of views about the nature of debt-servicing difficulties and appropriate responses to them. They include [ad hoc] financing arrangements; case by case debt reschedulings; interest capitalization schemes; formal insurance; stabilization funds; innovative instruments, including equity shares in public enterprises in borrowing countries as swaps with outstanding debt; and comprehensive restructurings, including write-downs or external claims. These proposals all aim to to permit growth of developing countries to be resumed and to restore their creditworthiness while allowing commercial banks to resume "spontaneous" lending. Since major banks hold or have held claims on developing countries equal to several times their capital, any scheme that implies a large write-down of debt must provide for the continued operation of these banks. This need to maintain bank solvency means that most proposals minimize write-downs as much as possible. Alternative suggestions have included the use of official capital to buy part of developing-country debt.
In the period immediately after 1982, most commercial lenders holding outstanding developing country debts shared an interest in concerted lending to protect the financial system and gain time to reduce their individual exposures to developing countries. A round of "defensive" lending (to support growth in the debtor countries), debt restructuring and re-selling of loan was made. Now that both objectives have largely been accomplished many smaller banks are trying to leave the debt-restructuring process - even at the cost of substantial write-offs - to redirect their lending to more traditional activities.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. These connections are based on a range of relationships such as broader and narrower scope, aggravation, relatedness and more. By concentrating on these links and relationships, the Encyclopedia is uniquely positioned to bring focus to the complex and expansive sphere of global issues and their interconnected nature.
The initial content for the Encyclopedia was seeded from UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations. UIA’s decades of collected data on the enormous variety of association life provided a broad initial perspective on the myriad problems of humanity. Recognizing that international associations are generally confronting world problems and developing action strategies based on particular values, the initial content was based on the descriptions, aims, titles and profiles of international associations.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.