Voluntary instruments are regarded as a substitute for government regulation (often branded as inflexible, unresponsive and ineffective) and because of their flexibility and economic effectiveness.
Members of the Alliance for Chemical Awareness (ACA) and other groups, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Environmental Defense (ED) have agreed on a plan to increase the pace of screening tests conducted to determine potential health and environmental effects of high production volume (HPV) chemicals. The effort has evolved into one with an international cast-with the involvement of the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA). Data availability reviews have begun and hazard data generation of some of the chemicals has started. The goal is for U.S. and foreign companies to complete hazard data assessments on the majority of 2 800 HPV chemicals by 2004. Total cost of the program is estimated to approach $500 million.
There is no lack of motivation to design codes of conduct and to use them in the lobby against regulation but their is an unwillingness to implement them.