This is the least common form of deterrent strategy, usually appearing in conjunction with peace-keeping missions when NGOs formally coordinate activities with external international military forces. NGOs have witnessed this in Northern Iraq, in Somalia and in Bosnia. In each case, NGOs have worked closely with international military coalitions who have provided a military security umbrella under which NGOs have been able to implement humanitarian assistance programmes. Needless-to-say, military deterrent strategies are less than ideal and should only be pursued when the other elements of the security triangle are clearly insufficient.
Extensive civil-military cooperation is a phenomenon less than ten years old, developed in highly volatile areas of the world where guns were rampant and lawlessness prevailed. This new working relationship has been influenced by several key factors, including varying ideologies and organizational structures, and differences over the use of force.