strategy

Developing integrated educational programmes for peace, human rights and democracy

Context:
In 1974, UNESCO adopted the [Recommendation concerning education for international understanding, cooperation and peace and education relating to human rights and fundamental freedoms], the first international instrument concerning Education for Human Rights and Peace. It elaborated the major guiding principles of educational policy: (1) understanding and respect for all peoples, their cultures, civilizations, values and ways of life; (b) awareness of the increasing global interdependence between peoples and nations; (c) recognition of the individual's abilities to communicate with others; (d) awareness not only of the rights but also of the duties incumbent upon individuals, social groups and nations toward each other; (e) understanding of the necessity for international solidarity and cooperation; (f) responsibility and readiness on the part of the individual to participate in solving the problems of his community, his country and the world at large.

More recently, in 1995, UNESCO adopted the [Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy]. The ultimate goal of this educational approach is the development in every individual of a sense of universal values and the types of behaviour on which a culture of peace is predicated.

Implementation:
In 1953, UNESCO launched the [Associated Schools Project for International Cooperation and Peace]. More than 3,000 educational institutions from 130 member-states participate in this global network. Although the Associated Schools are left to devise and implement their own activities, they are expected to concentrate on the following topics, which constitute the principal orientation of Education for Peace: (a) world problems and the role of the UN in solving them; (b) human rights; (c) other countries and cultures; (d) humanity and the environment.

UNESCO has held three major congresses on human rights teaching and education. The Vienna Congress (1978) stressed that among the objectives of human rights education is "fostering attitudes of tolerance, respect and solidarity... and developing the individual's awareness of the ways and means by which human rights can be translated into social and political reality". The Congress in Malta (1987) underlined the fact that a compete system of human rights teaching and education available to all citizens and all population groups and covering all levels of education should be established by member-states of UNESCO. In the Montreal Congress (1993), the concept of "education for human rights and democracy" was introduced. The [World Plan of Action] adopted by that Congress has as its ultimate purpose the creation of a Culture of Human Rights and the development of democratic societies which will enable individual and group to solve their disagreements and conflicts through non-violent methods.

On 16 December 1999 the European Commission approved euro 26 million for the promotion of human rights under the Budget chapter "European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights". The breakdown is as follows : euro 3 million support for the activities of International Criminal Tribunals and for the setting-up of the International Criminal Court, euro 14 million in grants for certain activities of human rights organisations involved in promoting EU and international initiatives aimed at abolishing the death penalty in all countries, the training of people responsible for enforcing human rights, re-enforcing respect for the rights of the child, rights of minorities such as gypsies and indigenous people and promoting measures to fight against the trafficking in women and euro 9 million as support for democracy in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Mongolia.

Subjects:
Education
Political theories
Development
Type Classification:
E: Emanations of other strategies