In the USA, a campaign called D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) is led by trained police officers who urge kids to 'just say no' to drugs. It has shown success among elementary school students but the approach has been less effective at discouraging older, at-risk students from using alcohol, tobacco, or illegal drugs. A modified strategy is to engage parents. It is argued that by establishing rules and expectations early on, by instilling values, parents can prepare children to face difficult decisions before drugs ever enter the picture. The child will want to be good and to do things that his parents approve of, but expectations must be firmly established before children start spending considerable time away from home or relationships will explode. A child whose whereabouts and friends have been monitored by his/her parents during their pre-teenage years, will be likely to still accept this during adolescence.
2. To keep children off drugs, he says, parents must surround them with a "protective shield" of reciprocal love, caring, security, respect, and responsibility.