Ideological remoulding Thought reform Menticide Coercive persuasion Re-education
A prolonged, calculated psychological process designed to distort and erase an individual's past beliefs and concepts and to substitute new ones without the individual's consent. The expected result is an inducement of passive acceptance and obedience and creating active approval and conversion to a new political, religious and/or socio-economic doctrine. This technique is used in both group settings and on individuals. R J Lifton describes a series of operations at work on the individual in the process of being brainwashed (a) annihilation of identity (taken from own group); (b) establishment of guilt (inner pain experienced as guilt); (c) conflict with an inflexible environment (only he is wrong); (d) adaptational solution (leniency when he admits guilt); (f) confession compulsion (everyone urges it); (g) channelling of guilt (guilt anxiety becomes attached to acts seen as subversive from the people's view point); (7) coercive confabulation (final confession - submission); (h) broadening of guilt (guilt as expanded to include major elements in his identity); (i) adaptational rewards (later participation in togetherness); (j) working through (living the principle of thought reform); (k) recoding of reality (alters values and identity; serves to reinterpret the past).
Korean War, the Chinese against the UN forces; Russian government against political prisoners; intensive training programs like guerrilla training, military boot camp, Japanese Management schools; and pre-schools and social group initiation processes like sect indoctrination, sorority and fraternity socialization [etc].
Brainwashing is an extremely fast learning process that creates new behaviour patterns beyond the capacity of the person before brainwashing.
1. Brainwashing is done without the consent of the person being brainwashed.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.