A study in Nepal used the cost in time spent collecting fuel as a measure of the consequences of deforestation; the effects of deforestation on time allocation, agricultural output, food consumption, and nutrition were examined. In particular, the allocation of women's time is influenced because women are engaged not only in the collection of fuelwood and other essential forest products affected by deforestation - such as leaf fodder and grass for livestock feed - but also in agricultural production. Deforestation reduces agricultural output from existing cultivated land by increasing time spent in collecting essential forest products, which shifts time away from agriculture. As a result, household income from agriculture is reduced. Unless alternative sources of income increase, food consumption and eventually the nutritional status of the population will be adversely affected. Because livestock production is also an important part of household enterprise in these areas, the destruction of forests also influences this sector. A reduction in the availability of fodder used for stall feeding increases the pressure for grazing, which increases soil erosion on lands that are currently not under cultivation. Also, children who are involved in collection and livestock grazing activities may experience adverse effects on health and education, which would ultimately influence the region's prospects for raising the productivity of labour.