There are two main forms of unsustainable development affecting forest lands. The first of these is wood extraction harvested and sold, usually for export. Such harvesting is typically carried out by bulldozers, in part to save money and realize higher profits, and partly because of the very density of a tropical rain forest. In contrast to the selective cutting done in temperate forests, timber harvesting in tropical rain forests usually leaves a barren landscape that has no chance to regenerate itself. The second threat to the rain forest comes from attempts to convert it to agricultural uses, ranging from small single-family farms to vast cattle ranches run by multinational corporations. Because the nutrients in a tropical rain forest are held mostly in the foliage, these efforts, too, soon leave behind an empty and lifeless terrain. Topsoil in the rain forest is very thin and must be held in place by trees and other forest plants; when those are cleared away the land rapidly becomes eroded, hard and rocky, unsuitable for continued ranching or farming.
This strategy features in the framework of Agenda 21 as formulated at UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), now coordinated by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development and implemented through national and local authorities.
In Somalia, hundreds of square kilometres of trees are cleared every month by the charcoal industry. The Somali Environmental Protection and Anti-Desertification Organization (SEPADO) led a campaign to enhance environmental awareness of environmental destruction. It distributes T-shirts carrying the message "Environmental protection is the responsibility of every society member". Stickers are also distributed saying "Protect the environment", "My property does not take part in the destruction of our environment", "He who destroys the environment destroys human life" and "Don't exchange your beautiful forest for a handful of dollars".
2. Policies of the World Bank and the IMF have had a devastating impact on the environment. After granting Nicaragua a loan in 1994, the IMF supported the expansion of the logging industry, causing an increase in Nicaragua's already high rate of deforestation (370,000 acres/year). At this rate, the few forests that remain in Nicaragua will disappear quickly.