It is impracticable to measure every emission source in a large urban area, with a population of millions. The majority of emissions are therefore estimated from other local information such as fuel consumption, vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT), or some other measure of activity relating to the emissions. Emission factors, derived from the results of measurements, are then applied to the activity data in order to estimate the likely emissions.
A 1998 UK government action plan will address all aspects of the Local Air Pollution Control system (LAPC). The plan includes action: to develop a more consistent approach to inspection of air pollution across the country; to actively encourage local authorities to sign up formally to the Cabinet Office's Enforcement Concordat and to produce and implement clear policies relating to all their enforcement functions, including LAPC; to monitor centrally local authority action to undertake four year reviews of authorisations; by the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health and the Local Government Association, to produce a management guide for local authorities on LAPC; to secure compliance by metal and plastic coating processes. A helpline has been set up to advise Local Authorities on technical compliance issues relating to this sector; and to consolidate and develop the 'link authority' scheme for local authority networking on LAPC issues within the UK.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.