The Department of Technical Cooperation for Development of the UN trains users, especial women, in the efficient use of water and in village-level operations and maintenance. This has been extended to peri-urban areas. FAO projects on the provision of safe water includes training of women in sanitation issues. UNIFEM, in emphasizing transport technologies, recognizes that low-income women spend 2,000 to 5,000 hours annually in transporting water, fuel and goods.
Water is repeatedly an organizing focus for women in poor communities all over the world and many local initiatives have occurred, including: the [matabi] women's groups in rural central Kenya who, through communal self-help, upgraded their roofs from thatch to corrugated iron ( [matabi], which enables collection of rainwater run-off; women's water co-operatives of Lima, Peru; water kiosks in the informal settlements of Nairobi, run by women's groups and supported by UNICEF, the Undugu Society, the Kenya Water for Health Organization (KWAHO) and other NGOs.