Organic wastes can be treated to produce compost (using aerobic treatment) or a biogas (using anaerobic treatment).
Separate collection of biological waste has become an important aspect of the closed substance cycle. It concerns materials arising in conjunction with human nutrition, either as kitchen waste or as waste from food processing. It also includes grass cuttings and garden waste. In total, between five and six million tonnes of biological waste in Germany are processed into high quality compost in approximately 500 composting plants employing some 4,000 people. For the Federal Republic as a whole, the total potential for biological waste is estimated at between ten and twelve million tonnes.
The German Government passed its [Biological Waste Ordinance] in 1997. The Ordinance contains stringent provisions governing the hygiene properties and pollutant levels of biological waste and compost, as well as taking agricultural requirements into account. Under the collective term "biological waste", the Ordinance basically covers all treated or untreated biodegradable waste applied to agricultural and horticultural areas. In particular, this includes compost from biological waste. The maximum amount for application is 20 or 30 tonnes per hectare over three years, depending on the quality criteria adhered to. Compost heaps in private gardens and allotments are not affected by the Ordinance.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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