Using commercial buy-back agreements Export bartering International counterpurchasing
Counterpurchase and buy-back are commercial transactions through which the seller agrees as part of his contractual obligations to purchase goods and services from the buyer up to an agreed percentage of his deliveries. In buy-back the object of primary transaction being machinery, equipment patents, know-how or technical assistance that will be used to set up production facilities for the buyer. The parties agree that the seller will subsequently buy from the buyer products produced in those production facilities. As in counterpurchase, both flows of products are paid for in money, and the value of the products bought back may be lower than, equal to or higher than that of the products of the primary transaction.
Countertrade, of which barter is one form, is heavily practised by developing and East European countries. It is estimated to countup to 10% of world trade. The process has taken very different legal forms and developed in a very uneven fashion from one region of the developing world to another.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.