Reducing government expenditure on tertiary health facilities
Limiting highly specialized public medical care
Excluding from essential clinical services health services with very low cost-effectiveness. Examples include heart surgery; treatment (other than pain relief) of highly fatal cancers of the lung, liver and stomach; expensive drug therapies for HIV infection; and intensive care for severely premature babies.
Very few cost-effective interventions depend on sophisticated hospitals and specialized physicians.
In the 1980s Papua New Guinea, to correct over-concentration of resources on higher-level facilities, limited public spending on hospitals to 40% of the recurrent budget of the Ministry of Health -- well below the level in most developing countries.
Governments in developing countries should spend at least 50% less that they now do on less cost-effective interventions and instead double or triple spending on basic public health programmes such as immunizations and on essential clinical services.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
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