Ways and means must be found to develop industrial processes and products that are both economically competitive and environmentally sustainable. Environmentally acceptable industrial complexes may be established by employing new technologies that are of more recent vintage but adapted to local resources, human capacities, and infrastructure. This requires new thinking that is best developed collaboratively between developed and developing countries. It requires industries to formulate and pursue longer term visions by way of incentives and appropriate frameworks for long-term thinking (in contrast to focussing on short-term gain and corporate survival).
This strategy features in the framework of Agenda 21 as formulated at UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), now coordinated by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development and implemented through national and local authorities.