The legal status of the Antarctic is quite unlike that of the Arctic. Seven states assert claims on the continent (Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom) - three of which overlap (those of Argentina, Chile and the United Kingdom). The United States and the Russian Federation do not recognize these claims but reserve the right to make their own claims, and the majority of other states do not recognize any claims.
Greenpeace established the World Park Base in Antarctica in 1987, primarily to highlight environmental violations in the Antarctic, and was dismantled and completely removed when [Antarctic Treaty] nations agreed to the Protocol. Greenpeace also conducted annual voyages to the region to inspect government operations, fishing methods and tourist activities, and during which, expedition staff carried out environmental inspections of over 40 bases and stations, documented evidence of environmental damage and flagrant violations of the Antarctic Treaty's environmental regulations by countries operating there. Greenpeace will continue to have a presence on the continent through the deployment of mobile inspection teams.
The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources was established 7 Apr 1982 by CCAMLR, and aims to conserve the Antarctic marine ecosystem while allowing for rational use of resources. The Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC), founded 1978, aims to raise public awareness of threats to the Antarctic environment; provide information on Antarctic minerals and living resources; protect the region in its development, by monitoring governments and holding them accountable for their actions; propose initiatives consistent with maintenance of the region as an international science reserve, wildlife sanctuary and wilderness area; assess government proposals and articulate environmentally sound alternatives based on policy research and legal analyses.
Independent bodies such as the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes (COMNAP) have developed year-round cooperation, with specialist working groups and groups of experts addressing different environmental issues. Specialized workshops are increasingly used to address particular issues, such as by SCAR and COMNAP on Monitoring of Environmental Impacts (SCAR/COMNAP 1996), by IUCN on Cumulative Impacts (IUCN 1996), by the United Kingdom (Norway/UK 1998) and by Peru (Peru 1999) on Protected Areas, by Chile during the combined XXV SCAR/X COMNAP meetings on the concept of 'dependent and associated ecosystems' in 1998, and by Australia on Diseases of Antarctic Wildlife (Australia 1999). In each case, these specialist meetings and their reports feed back into policy discussions at the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCM).